In analog editing, two reels of source
footage (the A and B roll) are used to provide material for editing.
The B-roll may be part or whole copy of the A roll. The two sources are
then used to create video effects and transitions. In non-linear , digital
editing these terms are not generally used, since digitized clips of the
original footage can be duplicated, cut, trimmed, overlapped an unlimited
number of times.
Imaginary line drawn between two subjects or along a line of motion
as an aid in maintaining continuity of screen direction. Sometimes
referred to as the “180-degree rule”.
A compressed audio format developed by Microsoft. PCM stands for Pulse
Digital audio transmission standards developed by Audio Engineering
Society and the European Broadcast Union. It specifies transmission of
data in a stream that encodes stereo audio signals along with optional
Aliasing is any unwanted result caused by a sampling rate lower than twice
the maximum frequency of the material being sampled. Because the object is
not sampled enough, it cannot be reproduced properly. Lines, which are not
filtered properly, and look jagged rather than smooth, are an example of
The alpha channel is an 8-bit channel of information in certain image
files such as 32 - bit. tga files, which stores opacity and transparency
values as grayscale values on a scale of white (fully opaque) to black
(fully transparent). The alpha channel is vital in superimposing aspects
of images, compositing, creating mattes, and color keying.
Natural background sounds, representative of a given recording
environment. If on-camera dialog is considered primary sound, traffic
noise or a refrigerator hum would be ambient sound.
Storage or encoding of a signal through the use of continuously varying
voltages. Electric current that fluctuates smoothly in value(voltage
amplitude) over time.
See Digital Signal.
Anti-aliasing removes or avoids the effects of aliasing by filtering more
effectively. Anti-aliasing smoothes rough edges and in sound removes
artificial high frequency “beats”. This is particularly useful when
your audio is being output to different specifications than the original
source files. In audio, antialiasing is also known as over sampling.
The opening in a lens that allows light to enter. The aperture is usually
an iris, but could also be a fixed size opening (as in pin hole camera).
Perceived degradation of an image through processing.
The ratio of height in picture. Normal TV has an aspect ratio of 4 by 3
(or 1.33 to 1), widescreen TV-HDTV and widescreen PAL – (16 by 9) is
1.77 to 1.
Theater screens generally have an aspect ratio of 1.85 to 1.
Recording video/audio in sequence immediately following previous material.
Consecutive edits from a complete program. [See edit, insert edit]
The result of recording over all or part of a prerecorded videotape
soundtrack, without affecting the prerecorded images.
Measured in the VU meter, these show peak and average sound levels. Levels
need to be kept below 0dB to avoid over saturation of audio.
Quality is based on sampling rate, bit depth, and the analog portions of
sound card and system. 16-bit, 44.1kHz is CD level quality and the
standard quality for digital audio editing.
Circuitry that monitors light levels, and adjusts a camcorder’s aperture
and shutter accordingly to
compensate for changing light conditions.
Automatic gain control. Camcorder circuitry that adjusts incoming audio
levels automatically, alleviating excessive image brightness and
distortion of loud sound.
Hard drive that avoids thermal recalibration and thus avoids interrupting
the flow of information. This is sometimes referred to as “embedded
servo”. This is useful in digital video, in which large amounts of image
and audio information must past through the computer in realtime. Most new
hard drives satisfy this requirement.
In digital video effects, horizontal (x), vertical (y) and
depth (z) axes.
Illumination from behind, above and usually to one side of the subject.
Creates a sense of depth by lighting that hair and shoulders, separating
the subject from the background area. Applied erroneously (such as
directly behind the subject), causes severe silhouetting. [See fill light,
key light, three-point lighting]
Amount of information that can be passed in a given time. Large bandwidth
is needed to show sharp picture detail-and is factor in the quality of
recorded or transmitted images.
Accessory for video lights, two-or four-leaf folding flaps that controls
Basic input/output system. Set of instructions in read only memory that
control low level PC operations such as booting.
Binary digit. Basic unit of information in binary code. Bits are
represented as 1 (on) or 0 (off). Digital video signal consists of
information about light intensity and color, as represented by the numbers
encoded in bits.
Generic term for variety of video image manipulation devices with
perceived mysterious or “magical” capabilities, including proc amps
Video image imperfection characterized by blurring of color borders;
colors spill over defined boundaries and “smear” into neighboring
Formatting Videotape with timecode…
Extension arm used to suspend a microphone or camera over subject(s) being
recorded. Objective is to keep production gear out of a camera’s view.
Bit Rate (Data Rate)
See Data Transfer Rate.
8 bit. The combination of 8 bits into 1 byte allows each byte to represent
256 possible values, or levels of gray between white and black. See
Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte.
Burned in Timecode
Timecode numbers that are superimposed on the picture, used for logging
and selecting material.
Special, faster area of memory that improves performance by storing
contents of frequently accessed memory locations and their locations. A
cache can speed up operations in a computer with a slow RAM access
compared to its processor speed.
Lighting foreground subjects illuminated by highly directional light,
appearing before a completely black background.
CCD (charge coupled device)
Light-sensitive computer chip in video cameras that converts images into
electrical flows. Less prone to image irregularities such as burning, lag
and streaking when compared with older image sensors. [See pickup]
The standard for digitizing component video. Also sometimes called D1
after the VTR format that first used this signal. See ITU-R 601.
Editing device that generates text.
Process of overlaying one video signal over another by replacing a range
of colors with the second signal. Typically, the first picture is shot
with a person or object against a special, signal color background (key
color) The second picture is inserted in place of the key color.
The color part of a video signal, but not its brightness or luminance.
Thus black and white images have no chrominance.
Also called clap stick. Identification slate with hinged, striped top that
smacks together for on-camera scene initiation. Clap boards were
originally used to synchronize a movie’s sound with its picture. [See
Tightly framed camera shot in which the principal subject is viewed at
close rage, appearing relatively large and dominant on screen. Variations
of the close-up may be designated as “medium close-up” or “extreme
close-up”. [See long shot, medium shot]
Compression decompression schemes. Used to compress video to manageable
size. See compression.
Moderately compressed video color subsampling in which the luminance
channel is not subsampled, but the chrominance channel has one quarter the
resolution. Most of the DV formats, including mini DV, use 4:1:1 color.
Moderately compressed video color subsampling that is very similar
to 4:1:1. Standard color for MPEG.
Mildly compressed video color subsampling in which the
luminance channel is not subsampled, but the chrominance channel has half
the resolution. Commonly used in professional video formats, such as
Uncompressed video color, which has no subsampling.
Color depth, which allows 256 colors to be displayed
simultaneously. The colors that will be displayed at a given time are
specified in the “Palette”. Many older computers only have 8-bit
displays. Also called “256 Colors” on the MacOS.
Color depth, which allows millions of colors to be displayed
simultaneously; 24-bit image can be truly photographic in quality. Also
called “true color” on Windows, and “Millions of Colors” on MacOS.
Video pattern consisting of eight equal width colors, used to establish a
proper color reference before recording and playback, and for adjustment
Electronic device that dissects the colors of a video signal, allowing
them to be individually manipulated.
Color range of specified coordinates, such as RGB, Y, R-Y, B-Y and Hue,
Saturation, Luminance (HSL).
Recording signal for D1 quality video enhances quality over composite
recording by allowing two chrominance channels, R-Y (Red minus luminance)
and B-Y (Blue minus luminance), along with signal brightness (Y). Green is
represented from these three signals. D1, MII, Betacam SP, and Betacam use
RGB is also a component signal. See Composite.
Encoding or recording of video information through one signal, combining
luminance and chrominance portions. Bandwidth is restricted, quality is
not as high as component.
Visual makeup of a video picture, including such variables as balance,
framing, field of view and texture. These combined qualities from an image
that’s pleasing to view, and effectively communicate its meaning.
The layering of multiple pictures on top of each other to create the
moving picture equivalent to a collage, and often resulting in surreal
combinations. Typically used in movie and television special effects, this
can be done in a variety of ways: painting, retouching, rotoscoping,
keying, matting digital effects, etc. A cutout or matte holds black the
background and allows the foreground picture to appear to be in the
The process of reducing the size of digital information,
usually by removing redundant information, “lossy compression,” or
rearranges it through algorithms “lossless” compression. Uncompressed
video takes up about 21 MB per second, about 1.2 GB per minute. (D1
quality can be maintained with a compression of around 21 MB per
second-based on the conversion from RGB color to YUV (4:2:2) which is 4
parts luminance (brightness) per 2 chrominance (color) parts. See Codec,
Data Transfer Rate RGB: 720 by 480 (NTSC: screen size in pixels by 3
(bytes per pixel) by 30 (frames per second) = 31 MB per second.
YUV: 720 by 480 (screen pixels) by 4 (bytes) by 2 (pixels) = 21 MB per
DV (4:1:1) = 15 MB/sec uncompressed “lossless” quality.
[1:visual] Logical succession of recorded or edited events, necessitating
consistent placement of props, positioning of characters, and progression
of time. [2:directional] Consistency in camera subject relationships, to
avoid confusing a viewer’s perspective.
Degree of difference between dark and light in an image.
Control - L
A two-way communication system used to coordinate tape transport commands
for automated editing. Primarily found in 8mm camcorders and VCRs.
Control - S
A one –way communication system that treats a VCR or camcorder as a
slave unite, with edit commands emanating from an external edit controller
or compatible deck. Primarily fond on 8mm VCRs and camcorders.
An area on a videotape containing information to synchronize playback and
videotape editing operations.
Cross – Fade
Simultaneous fade-in of one audio source or lighting effect as another
fades out; may overlap temporarily. Transition similar to a video
dissolve. [See dissolve, fade]
Lighting accessory consisting of random pattern of cutouts that forms
shadows when light passes through it. A cucalorus is sed to imitate the
shadows usually found with natural lighting conditions.
Signal to begin, end or otherwise influence on-camera activity while
recording. Presetting specific starting points of audio or video material
making it is easily available for immediate and precise playback when
Instantaneous change from one shot to another. Director’s command to
immediately terminate on-camera action and recording.
Shot other than the principal action (but peripherally related),
frequently used as transitional footage or to avoid a jump cut.
Editing that is limited to immediate changes from one scene to another,
without smoother image transitions such as fades, dissolves or wipes.
Digital video tape format using the ITU-R 601 standard to record 4:2:2
component video on 19mm tape. Currently the highest quality video tape
format generally available, uses component recording signal. The first
digital video tape format, hence D1.
Digital video tape format using the 4fsc method to record composite
digital video. Uses 19mm tape and a cassette similar to D1, uses composite
recording signal. The second digital videotape format, hence D2.
Data Transfer Rate
The amount of data transported in a given amount of time. Data rate is one
means used to define the amount of compression used on a video signal.
Uncompressed D1 has a bit rate of 21 MB per second. A regular 2GB hard
drive has a data transfer rate of 3-6 MB per second. MPEG 1 has a bit rate
to 150K per second equal to that of a CD ROM drive speed.
A unit for expressing the ratio between two amounts of electric
or acoustic signal power, used for measuring audio signals. Equal to 20
times the common logarithm of the voltage or current ratio.
Depth of field
Area in which all objects located at different distances from the camera
appears in focus. The area between the nearest in focus and the furthest
object in focus, when viewed through a lens. The depth of field varies
with subject-to-camera distance, focal length of the camera lens and the
camera’s aperture setting.
Illuminates relatively large area indistinctly, which produces soft
shadows. Diffused light is often created with floodlights combined with a
Gauzy or translucent material that alters the quality of light passing
through it. A diffuser produces flatter, less intense lighting with
weaker, less noticeable shadows.
A signal having only 2 logical values (0 or 1, off or on). See Analog
Security device that comes
with software that you attach to computers printer port. Protecting
software from illegal copying.
Drop Frame and Non-Drop Frame Timecode
Digital Video. New mini digital tape format. DV has 500 lines horizontal
resolution. 54dB signal to noise ratio.
Digital video effects. Electronic digital picture modification yielding
specialty image patterns and maneuvers: tumble, strobe, page turn, mosaic,
posterization, solarization, etc.
Light that illuminates a relatively small area with distinct light beam;
usually created with spotlight, yields harsh, defined shadows.
Image transition effect of one picture gradually disappearing as another
appears. Similar to an audio and lighting cross-fade.
Camera support mounted on wheels to enable smooth movement in any
Videotape signal voids, viewed as fleeting white specks or streaks.
Usually the result of tiny “bare spots” on a tape’s magnetic
particle coating caused by dirt or tape debris blocking the video
 Process or result of duplicating videotape in its entirety. 
Editing technique whereby new audio or video replaces portion(s) of
Process or result of selectively recording video and /or audio on finished
videotape. Typically involves reviewing raw footage and transferring
desired segments from master tape(s) onto new tape in a predetermined
Electronic control device used in conjunctions with VCRs/camcorders to
perform videotape edits, with speed, precision and convenience.
EDL (edit decision list)
Handwritten or computer-generated compilation of all
post-production edits to be executed in a video work.
Compact videocassette format, popularized by consumer
Device that combines or translates a video signal into a different format,
for example RGB to composite or NTSC to VGA.
Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be
seen, regardless of size differences in receiver displays. Also called “critical
area” and “safe title area,” encompasses 80 percent of total screen.
Opening picture of a program or scene. Usually a wide and/or distant
perspective orients viewer to overall setting and surroundings.
Accessory talent not essential to a production, assuming some peripheral
on-camera role, usually with no lines or dialogue.
Gradual diminishing or heightening of visual and/or audio intensity. “Fade
out” or “fade to black,” “fade in or “up from black” are
[1:video] Infinite loop of visual patterns from signal output being fed
back as input; achieved by aiming live camera at receiving
monitor.[2:audio] Echo effect at low levels, howl or piercing squeal at
Field of view
Extent of a shot that’s visible through a particular lens.
Supplementary illumination, usually from a floodlight positioned midway
between camera and subject, which lightens or eliminates shadows created
by key light.
Transparent material, typically glass accessory, mounted at front of
camcorder lens to regulate light passing through. Manipulates colors and
image patterns, often for special effect purposes.
Bright flashes and/or extreme contrast reduction evident in picture,
caused by excessive light beaming into a camera’s lens and reflecting
off its internal glass elements.
Illumination characterized by even, diffused light without shadows,
highlights or contrast. May impede viewer’s sense of depth, dimension
Radiates a diffused, scattered blanket of light with soft, indistinct
shadows. Best used to spread illumination on broad areas, whereas
spotlights focus on individual subjects.
Flying erase head
Accessory video head mounted on spinning head drum, incorporated in newer
camcorders and VCRs to eliminate glitches and rainbow noise between scenes
recorded or edited.
Distance from a camera’s lens to a focused image with the lens focused
on infinity. Short focal lengths offer a broad field of view (wide-angle);
long focal lengths offer a narrow field of view (telephoto). Zoom lenses
have a variable focal length.
Controlling lens focus so that an image maintains sharpness and clarity
despite camera and/or subject movement.
The smallest increment of a complete television picture, equal to one-thir-tieth of a second.
Digitizer capable of capturing video images one frame at a time. Used for
capturing still frames.
Act of properly composing a shot in the camcorder’s viewfinder for
desired visual content.
Number of vibrations produced by a signal or sound, usually expresses as
cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz)
Measure of the range of frequencies a medium can respond to and reproduce.
A broad video response maintains the highest picture detail; a wide audio
response accommodates the broadcast range of sound.
Numbers corresponding to variable size of camera’s iris opening, and
thus, the amount of light passing through lens. The higher the number, the
less light enters.
Video or audio amplification, signal strength. “Riding gain” means
varying controls to achieve desired video or audio levels.
Colored material placed in front of a light source to alter its hue.
Useful for correcting mismatches in lighting, as in scenes lit by both
daylight and artificial light.
Relationship between the quality of the information on master video
recording and a given copy constitutes a second-generation duplication,
and will be lower in quality than a first generation copy.
Degradation in picture and sound quality resulting from duplication of the
original master video recording. Successive duplication compounds
Genlock (generator locking
Synchronizes two video sources, allowing part or all of their
signal to be displayed together. Necessary for overlaying computer
graphics with video.
Blanketed signal noise viewed as fuzziness, poor quality images,
attributable to luminance inadequacies.
Production crew stagehand responsible for handling equipment, props, and
scenery before, during, and after production.
Common digital storage component in a computer.
 Electromagnetic component within camcorders and VCRs that records,
plays back and erases video and audio signals on magnetic tape. Tripod’s
Space remaining between the top of a subject’s head and a monitor’s
upper screen edge.
Hi8 (high-band 8mm)
Improved version of 8mm videotape format characterized by higher luminance
resolution for a sharper picture. Compact
“conceptual equivalent” of Super-VHS.
Generalized term defining audio quality approaching the limits of human
hearing; refers to high-quality sound reproduction systems.
Specification denoting amount of discernable detail across a screen’s
width. Measured in lines. The higher the number the better the picture
Video signal processor that compensates for picture detail losses and
distortion occurring in recording and playback. Exaggerates transitions
between light and dark areas by enhancing the high frequency region of
Electronic or optical stabilization of video image to cure minor camera
Assembling finished program “on the fly” as you videotape. Achieved
simply by activating and pausing camcorder’s record function. Reduces or
eliminates post-production work, but allows less control over finished
program and usually imposes quality concessions.
Recording video and/audio segment(s) within /between existing footage
without disturbing what precedes and follows. Must replace recording of
The mechanism for an adjustable lens opening. It operates similar to and
is named after the iris of the human eye. Size measured in f-stop.
ITU-R 601 (CCIR601)
ITU-R 601 (formerly CCIR601) is a standard, which defines
broadcast quality video and specifies how digital television should be
encoded. The standard defines encoding for both 625 and 525 line systems.
It usually refers to color difference component digital video, not RGB,
although it could encompass RGB. This standard sets out 4:2:2 sampling at
13.5 MHz with 720 luminance samples per active line. Digitizing ca take
place in 8 or 10 bits. 13.5 MHz was selected because it works equally well
for the 625 and 525 line standards.
Video image aberration seen as slight, fast vertical or horizontal
shifting of a picture or portion of a picture.
Unnatural, abrupt switch between shots that are identical in subject but
slightly different in screen location. Awkward progression makes subject
appear to jump from one screen location to another. Remedied with cutaway.
In video editing, tool for viewing work to get exact frame location for
Joint photographic Experts Group. A standard for compressing still image
files. Uses a “lossy compression” method that results in some loss of
Principal illumination source on a subject or scene normally positioned
slightly off center and angled to provide shadow detail.
Small, easily concealed, unobtrusive and aesthetically pleasing microphone
that is usually hidden in clothing.
Placing a wide screen image on a conventional TV by placing black bands at
the top and bottom of the screen.
Analog, tape-based editing . Called linear because once the program is
edited scene lengths can not be changed without re-editing all scenes
which follow it. Compare with nonlinear editing.
Proper synchronization of video with audio, lip movement with audible
Better known as the technique widely practiced with music video
recordings, whereby “vocalists” mime to match lips to a playback of
Camera view of a subject or scene, usually from a distance, showing a
LP (long play)
Middle tape speed of most VHS VCR, accommodating four-hour recording.
Linear timecode is designed to be recorded on standard audiotape. When
recorded to video, LTC is placed on one of the linear audio tracks of the
videotape. An advantage of LTC is that it can be easily played back over a
wide speed range by a stationary head. However, it cannot be replayed when
the tape is stopped or moving very slowly. Another limitation is that is
occupies an audio track, which might otherwise be used as part of a
project’s soundtrack. LTC is the original SMPTE timecode standard; older
videotapes, if they contain timecode at will, are striped with LTC. In
audio only productions LTC is normally used.
The black and white, or brightness, of an image. A video signal is
comprised of luminance Y, chrominance (color information) C and sync.
Metric unit of illumination. Means of measuring a camcorder’s low-light
sensitivity. The lower the lux reading, the greater the sensitivity.
Lens capable of extreme close-up focusing, useful for views of small
subjects. Some camcorders have a macro setting.
Original recorded videotape footage; “edited master” implies original
copy of tape in its edited form. Duplications constitute generational
Point inserted on the timeline ruler that indicate instance to the editor,
such as significant cuts, scene changes, etc.
A matte is an image file, often created as a grayscale .bmp file, whose
grayscale values are used to combine two separate images for compositing.
Defines any camera perspective between long shot and
close-up, whereby subjects are viewed from medium distance.
(MB) One megabyte is equal to 1,024 kilobytes.
Megahertz. A unit of frequency equals to 1 million cycles per second.
MIDI (musical instrument
System of communication between digital electronic instruments and
equipment allowing synchronization and distribution of digital musical
[1:audio] Combining two or more sound sources, with various channels
controlled to achieve desired balance of single audio signal output.
Executed with audio mixer.[2:video] combining video signals from two or
Agreement to be signed by anyone appearing in a video work, protecting
videomaker from right of privacy lawsuit. Specifies event, date,
compensation provisions, and rights being waived.
One-legged camera support.
Rapid sequence of video shots assembled to communicate a particular image
or mood. Juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated material can conjure new
idea or message.
Video that is a sequence of jpeg images.
Moving Picture Experts Group. A standard for compressing moving pictures.
MPEG 1 uses a data rate of 1.2 Mbps (Mega Bits per Second), the speed of
CD-ROM. MPEG2 supports much higher quality with a data rate (also called
bit rate) of from 2 to 10 Mbps. MPEG 2 is the format most favored for
video on demand and DVD.
Ability to combine audio, video and other information with graphics,
control, storage and other features of computer-based systems.
Applications include presentation, editing, interactive learning, games
ND (neutral-density filter
Mounted at the front of camcorder lens. Reduces the light intensity
without affecting its color qualities.
NiCd (nickel cadmium)
Abbreviation for lightweight camcorder battery type, designed to maintain
power longer than traditional lead-acid batteries.
Undesirable video or audio signal interference; typically seen as snow.
In digital video editing, “clips” that appear on screen are icons.
While trimming, cutting, and deleting clips from the Composition window,
the original clip information is never destroyed.
Non-drop frame timecode
Non-linear refers to random access capabilities for searching, recording
and playing back digital video sequences stored on the hard drive.
Non-linear editing is more efficient due to the elimination of search time
associated with accessing video clips from videotape. Allows you to
reorganize clips or make changes to sections without having to redo the
NTSC (National Television
Group formed by FCC to regulate U.S. television broadcasting
specifications. NTSC refers to all video systems conforming to this
525-line 30-frame-per-second signal standard.
Off-line and On-line Editing
Off-line editing is the process of producing a rough-cut or EDL that will
be passed on to another editing suite for final edit. On-line editing is
the process of creating the final high quality edits master tape. While
cost may differ between the two processes, what really distinguishes
off-line and on-line editing processes is the editing intent.
The end point of trimmed clip.
Over the shoulder shot
View of primary camera’s subject framed by another subject’s shoulder
and back of head in foreground. Common in interview situations.
Phase alternating Line. The television and video standard in use in most
of Europe. Consists of 625 horizontal lines at a field rate of 50 fields
per second. (Two fields equals one complete Frame). Only 576 of these
lines are used for picture. Broadcast: 720 by 576 pixels. The rest are
used for sync or extra information such as VITC and Closed Captioning.
A wide screen (16 by 9) television standard in use in Europe that is
compatible with existing 4 by 3 TV sets. Non-16 by 9 TVs show the picture
in a letterboxed form. While its aspect ratio is the same as HDTV it does
not offer the same level of quality as HDTV.
In audio, moving sound from one speaker to another. Pan can be set between
left and right speakers.
Pulse cod modulation. Uncompressed audio format used to encode an analog
signal into digital data. Takes 8-bit sample at 4kHz 80000 times per
second, which provides 16K of data per second.
Vertical camera movement, up or down, with camera remaining horizontal
Also called “RCA” or “RCA phono,” popular cable connector for home
audio as well as video components. Standard connection for direct
A video camera’s image sensing element, either CCD (charge coupled
device) or MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) that converts light to
Short for Picture Element. The basic unit from which a video or computer
picture is made. Essentially a dot with a given color and brightness
value. D1 images are 720 pixels wide by 486 high. NTSC images are 640 by
Conversion of film frame rate material (24fps) to NTSC video
(29.97fps) which results in the addition of approximately 6 frames are
created per second. Pulldown frames are created by blending frames from
the original source in a specific pattern, and is very undesirable in
compressed movies. Pulldown is introduced with a system called a “Telecine”,
and may be removed with Media Cleaner’s “Intelecine” feature.
Playback source of video footage in basic player/recorder editing setup.
POV (point of view)
Shot perspective whereby the camera assumes the subject’s
view, and thus viewer’s see what the subject sees as if through
A filter mounted at the front of a camcorder lens; blocks undesirable
glare and reflections.
Any video production activity following the initial recording.
Typically involves editing, addition of background music, voiceover, sound
effects, titles, and/or various electronic visual effects. Results in
 Slight backing-up
function of camcorders and VCRs when preparing for tape recording; ensures
smooth, uninterrupted transitions between scenes at edit points. 
Usually for on-air applications. To start tape playback earlier
than necessary to ensure full operating speed and stabilization.
Project is a video production that contains: 1) Saved versions, or work
files, of your work. This includes pointers for the arrangement of items
on the Composition window timeline and in the Library party plug-ins or
other files associated with your project.
“Quantization Factor.” The Q factor measures how much video is
compressed. For most capture cards, the higher the Q factor, the better
the quality of the captured image. However, a higher Q factor allows for
less file compression and requires more disk space to store video.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A group of hard drives combine with
a RAID controller, which causes them to act as one storage bin. A RAID may
work as a protective agent in the event one of the hard drives fails. The
levels on your system and requirements. For video, levels 0 or 5 are the
Random access memory, used for the operating system, application program,
and processing data.
Recorded tape direct from camera.
Cutaway view showing someone’s or something’s response to primary
Device that counts control-track pulses to account for videotape
playing/recording time. Measured in hours, minutes, seconds and sometimes,
An electronic device used to receive a broadcast RF signals, whereas a
monitor accepts composite video signals only.
Recipient of raw video feed (master or workprint) and recorder of edited
videotape in basic player/recorder editing setup.
That light which bounces off an illuminated subject.
Lighting accessory helpful for spreading light as well as filling in
shadows. Often made of lightweight reflective metal or poster board
covered with metallic material.
The computing of an effect. Process in which the computer pulls up two
frames of source material to be used in creating the effect or transition.
Result Time code
Result Time code (also called “Project” timecode) refers to a video
clip’s position on the composition window timeline. The Result In and
Out points indicate a clip’s start and end points on the timeline.
The amount of detail in an image. Higher resolution equals detail. Also
used to describe the size of an image, usually in pixels. In video,
generally referred to as horizontal resolution and evaluated by
establishing number of horizontal lines clearly discernible on a test
RF (radio frequency)
 Any audio, video or data signal or signals that are modulated and
transmitted. A combination of audio and video signals coded as a
channel number, necessary for TV broadcasts as well as closed-circuit
Red, Green, Blue. The primary colors of light. Computers and some analog
component devices use separate red, green, and blue color channels to keep
the full bandwidth and therefore the highest quality picture. RGB is a
type of video signal that provides separate channels for output for paint
systems and computers. An extremely high quality signal, but for
recording, is transformed into component or composite signal.
Raw, tentative edit of footage in the approximate sequence, length and
content of fished program. Gives preliminary indication of eventual actual
Serial data transmission standard used with VTRs.
Rule of thirds
Composition consideration suggesting that a picture appeals most with its
primary point of interest appearing off-center. With the screen divided
into thirds, vertically and horizontally, important visual elements should
be targeted at wherever imaginary lines cross.
Device that changes scan rate of a video signal, possibly converting it
from a noninterlaced mode. For example, a scan counter allows computer
graphics to be displayed on a standard video screen.
Result of television’s swift scanning process which sweeps out a series
of horizontal lines from left to right, then down a bit and left to right
again. Complete NTSC picture consists of 525 scan lines per frame.
Number of times a screen is “redrawn” per second. Computer displays
operate at different scan rates than most TVs.
In the language of moving images, a sequence of related shots usually
constituting action in one particular location.
Lighting accessory made of translucent material (wire mesh, gauze, silk)
used to lessen or defuse the intensity of light.
Replay of video or audio tracks at various speeds or by “manually”
dragging the jog/shuttle bar in Composition or Item Information windows.
Small Computer System Interface. High speed (up to 40MB per second)
parallel interface that can connect up to 15 devices at a time. Often used
to connect hard disks, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and other mass storage
French Video Sequential Couleur Avec Memoir. 625 lines/25 frames per
Adjusting camera focus to emphasize desired subject(s) in a shot. Selected
area maintains clarity and image sharpness while the remainder of the
image blurs. Useful for directing viewer’s attention.
Computer input/output port supporting serial communications, in which
information is transmitted one bit at a time. Referred to as “COM port.”
Amount of raw footage recorded relative to the amount used in an edited,
Directional microphone with long “barrel,” designed to pick up sound
from extreme subject-to-mike distances.
An electronic control that governs the amount of time during which
incoming light forms a single video field. A camcorder’s normal shutter
speed is 1/60 second.
Relationship between signal strength and a medium’s inherent noise.
Video S/N indicates how grainy or snowy a picture will be, plus color
accuracy; audio S/N specifies amount of background tape hiss present with
low or no-volume recordings. The higher the S/N, the cleaner the playback.
Contrived audio, usually prerecorded, incorporated with a video soundtrack
to resemble the real thing. Blowing on a microphone, for example, might
simulate wind to accompany hurricane images.
The audio portion of a video recording, often multifaceted with voiceover,
background music, sound effects, etc.
Since Source In and Out points for a clip relate specifically to the clip,
moving the clip on the Composition window timeline, doesn’t affect them.
SP (standard play)
Fastest tape speed of most VHS VCRs, accommodating two-hour recordings.
Special Effects (SFX)
Tricks and illusions, electronic or on camera. Employed in film and video
to distort reality.
Special effects generator (SEG)
Video signal processor with vast, but varying, image manipulation
capabilities involving patterns and placement as well as color and
texture: mixing, multiplying, shrinking, strobing, wiping, dissolving,
flipping and colorizing, for example DVE switcher.
Radiates a well-defined directional beam of light, casting hard, distinct
shadows. Best used to focus illumination on individual subjects, whereas
floodlights blanket broader areas.
Previously shot footage stored so it is conveniently accessed as need.
Series of cartoon-like sketches illustrating key visual stages (shots,
scenes) of a planned production, accompanied by corresponding audio
Non-inherent titles or graphics appearing over an existing video picture,
partially or completely hiding areas they cover. A picture superimposed on
another can appear transparent.
S-Video. A higher quality than the original VHS tape. Uses S-VHS
connectors, which have a round plug with four pins. Composite signal in
which the C (chrominance) signal has separated from Y for better color, a
step up from basic composite video.
S-video separately transmits the chrominance and luminance portions of a
video signal via multiple wires, thereby avoiding the NTSC encoding
process, and the inevitable picture quality degradation created by
encoding and decoding a signal.
A term used in electronics to describe the precise alignment of two
signals or functions. Electronic pulses that synchronize the scanning of
various video equipment. In video, sync is an essential element for
maintaining the proper clocking of video signals.
The common name for the special effects generator (SEG).Permits video
signal mixing from two or more sources such as cameras, time base
correctors, character generators. Most common visual transitions are
dissolves, wipes, and other clean transition effects.
Automatic indicators on camera from and within viewfinder that signal a
recording is in progress and seen by both camera subject(s) and operator.
Imaging device used in conjunction with a movie projector and camcorder or
camera, to transfer film images to videotape.
Camera lens with a long focal length and a narrow horizontal field of
view. The opposite of wide-angle lens, a telephoto lens magnified,
close-up images from considerable distance.
A mechanical device that projects and advances text on a mirror
in front of camera’s lens, allowing on-camera talent to read lines while
appearing to maintain eye contact with viewers.
Any various combinations of converging lines, alignment marks, colored
bars and gray scales appearing on screen to aid in the adjustment of video
equipment optimal for picture alignment, registration, and contrast. Often
viewed on broadcast television in off-air hours.
One terabyte is equal to 1,024 gigabytes.
Basic lighting approach employing key, back, and fill lights to illuminate
subject with a sense of depth and texture. Strategic placement imitates
natural outdoor lighting environment and avoids flat lighting.
A digital code number was developed by the Society of Motion Picture and
Television Engineers as a standard to locate exact points on videotape.
This is very helpful for editing video because such a standard affords the
ability to specify exact IN and OUT points of video.
The format of SMPTE timecode is HH:MM:SS:FF: (hour, minutes, seconds,
frames). Many video decks and cameras now keep track of this timecode and
usually display on a readout on the deck itself. Also, many of today’s
cameras record timecode onto the tapes themselves in an area of the tape
not used for video or audio storage. Since many decks also transmit this
timecode through RS-422 or RS-232 ports.
There are two types of SMPTE timecode: drop frame and non-drop frame, and
two ways of storing timecode information: LTC and VITC.
Timcode, Drop Frame and Non-Drop Frame
Drop Frame timecode vaporizes 2 frames worth of video timecode every
minute in order to match the 29.97 frames per second (or 59.94 fields per
second) NTSC standard. When timecode was first developed it was assumed
that video would run at exactly 30 frames per second. However, color
television arrived at 29.97 frames per second. This meant that over an
hour’s time there would about a three and half second error-about 110
frames. This resulted in a problem for broadcast television, which is
sensitive. So the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) developed Drop Frame Timecode to solve the problem.
A camera move in which the camera head pivots in a vertical direction,
down or up, from a stationary position. Follows movement, contrasts
differences in size between two subjects, or gives viewer point-of-view
sense of a subject’s height.
Periodically recording a minimal number of frames over long durations of
actual time. Upon playback, slow processes such as a flower blooming, or
clouds forming may be viewed in rapid motion.
The process of incorporating onscreen text as credits, captions or any
other alphanumeric communication to video viewers.
Three-legged camera mount offering stability and camera placement as well
as consistency in movement. Most are lightweight, used for remote
A camera view that includes two subjects, a popular style used for
Alighting accessory shaped like an umbrella, available in various sizes.
Usually made of textured gold or silver fabric. Facilitates soft, shadow
less illumination by reflecting light onto a scene.
A highly selective microphone pickup pattern. Rejects sound that comes
from behind the microphone while absorbing sound that comes from in front.
Variable bit rate.
VHS (video home system)
Predominant half-inch videotape format developed by Matsushita and
licensed by JVC.
VHS-C (VHS compact)
Scaled-down version of VHS using miniature cassettes compatible with
full-size VHS equipment through use of adapter.
Video Capture Card
Hardware that converts analog video into digital signals. New cards are
capable of realtime processing of video effects. Most current cards
capture in fields (30fps= 60 fields per second.) for high quality. See
The display, actually a tiny video monitor, on which a camcorder operator
watches the image being taped.
Visual special effect whereby viewers see images through a perceived
keyhole or other desired shape. In low-budget form, this can be achieved
by aiming camera through a cutout of desired vignette.
Undesirable darkening at the corners of a picture, as if a viewer’s
peering through a telescope. Due to improper matching of lens to camera.
Vertical Interval Timecode is recorded within the video picture, during
the vertical blanking interval. It can be present in a video signal
without being visible on screen. Compared to LTC; VITC offers two
advantages for video editing: it can be read from a still frame; and it
provides field-rate (half-frame) accuracy. VITC cannot be recorded on
linear audio tracks.
Memory management allowing information in physical memory to be swapped
out to a hard disk, and allowing more memory space for application
Narration accompanying picture, heard above background sound or music,
without the narrator being seen on camera. Typically applied to an edited
visual during post-production.
Video Tape Recorder.
Whip pan (swish pan)
Extremely rapid camera movement from left to right or right to left,
appearing as an image blur. When edited together, two such pans can
effectively convey passage of time.
Electronic adjustment of a video camera to retain truest colors of
recorded image. Activated in camcorder prior to recording; proper setting
established by aiming at white object.
Camera lens with short focal length and broad horizontal field of view.
Opposite of the viewer and tends to reinforce the perception of depth.
Foam microphone shield, thwarts undesirable noise from wind and rapid mike
Picture transition from one scene to another wherein anew scene is reveled
by a moving line or pattern. In the simplest form, simulates a window
shade being drawn. More sophisticated variations, triangle wipes and
Venetian blind wipes.
Consisting of radio transmitter and receiver; utilizes a low-power radio
signal for cable-free operation.
Three-pin plug for a three-conductor “balanced” audio cable. Employed
with high-quality microphones, mixer, and other audio equipment. XLR is
also called a “cannon.”
Term used to describe the separation of video signal components used in
systems such as Hi-8 and S-VHS, VHS and 8millimeter recordings. In
to composite and component formats of color recording, Y/C is used to
record video signal.
Y, Cr, Cb
Digital Luminance and color difference signals in ITU-R601 coding. Cr is a
digitized version of R-Y, Cb is a digitized version of B-Y.
A video system employing luminance and two chroma components directly
related to the red and blue components.
Variance of focal length, bringing subjects into and out of close-up
range. Lens capability permits change from wide-angle to telephoto, or
vice-versa, in one continues move. “Zoom in” and “zoom out” are
Range of lens’ focal length, from the most “zoomed in” field of
view, to the most “zoomed out.” Expressed as ratio: 6:1, for example,
implies the same lens from the same distance can make same image appear